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209Keith, Property Tax: A Practical Manual for Anglophone AfricaNo. 214Bonfiglioli, Agro-pastoralis n in Chad as a Strategy for Survival: An Essay on the Relationship Anthropology and StatisticsNo. 218Mohan, editor, Bibliography of Publications: Technical Department, Africa RegionJuly 1987 to December 1992Discussion Paper SeriesNo. 82Psacharopoulos, Why Educational Policies Can Fail: An Overview of Selected African ExperiencesNo. 83Craig, Comparative African Experiences in Implementing Educational PoliciesNo.

211Weijenberg, Dioné, Fuchs-Carahé, Kéré, and Lefort, Revitalizing Agricultural Research in the Sahel: A Proposed Framework for Action Page v Contents Executive Summary 1 1. Introduction 5 2. Overview of Past Results 6 Civil Service Components of SALs 6 Civil Service-Related Technical Assistance Loans/Credits 9 Overall Impact of CSR Programs 10 3. Limits of Existing Approaches 11 4. Key Characteristics and Issues of the Administrative Environment in Africa 12 The Patrimonial State 12 Lack of Accountability 13 Interest Groups and Indigenous Institutions 13 Underdevelopment of the Mass Media and Lack of Openness and Transparency 14 Lack of the Rule of Law 14 5.

The main reason for the minimal fiscal impact is that cuts tended to fall disproportionately on the lower end of the civil service. As a result, the unit cost was lower for those retrenched than for those recruited. 5 In fact, out of fifteen countries reviewed undergoing Bank-supported Civil Service Reform in 1990, eight countries registered absolute increases in their wage bill after the reforms were implemented. e. more efficient and effective civil service in Africa. Economic liberalization poses, in new terms, the problem of civil service performance, insofar as "value for money" becomes the paramount criterion for evaluating performance.

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