English As A Second Language

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By Luciano Canepari

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31. Di‡erent diphthongs. closing opening centering For example, in British English, beers /'bIÈ≤z/ ('b¤;ÈΩ) and bear(s) /'bEÈ≤{z}/ ('b™;‘{Ω}) are in the same group as beer /'bIÈ≤/ ('b¤;å), even in accents which present (éÅ, éa) for /éÈ≤/. ˛erefore, the best decisions are normally made considering both phonemic and phonetic transcriptions. 7. 3-4, we give the most extreme vocogram positions, with the express purpose of showing the limits of the region of oral space used for vocoids. 6 give positions which are more commonly found in the languages of the world; these are slightly less peripheral.

2-3 of the HPh). 29-31). If the endpoint is an unrounded vowel, nothing is added; instead, with rounded vowels, a minuscule black dot is placed at the end of the line. If the endpoint is half-rounded, the marker at the end is a diamond÷ this marker is thus analogous to the normal-sized marker that would be used for a half-rounded first element ($). Meanwhile, the phonemic and phonetic transcriptions completing the information provided are placed around the vocogram. 29. Diphthongs (occurring stressed and unstressed).

If the line is not continuous, but divided into three segments (as in the case of (,)), the contoid is semi-constrictive (intermediate between a constrictive and an approximant). 13 of the HPh}), there is a curved line placed on the tongue blade. ˛is curve is meant to be a reminder of the longitudinal groove that characterizes these articulations. ˛e curve (like the horizontal line) is segmented in the case of semi-constrictives. ˛e same marks naturally occur in the diagrams for stopstrictives as well.

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