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By Michael P. André

The foreign Acoustical Imaging Symposium has been held always due to the fact that 1968 as a distinct discussion board for complex study, selling the sharing of expertise, advancements, equipment and idea between all parts of acoustics. The interdisciplinary nature of the Symposium and the broad overseas participation are of its major strengths. Scientists from around the globe current their papers in an off-the-cuff atmosphere conducive to energetic dialogue and cross-fertilization.

The indisputable fact that a devoted group of scientists has supported this sequence on the grounds that 1968 is proof of its impression at the box. The Symposium sequence keeps to thrive in a hectic calendar of clinical conferences with out the infrastructure of a pro society. It does so simply because those that attend and people who depend upon the complaints as a well known reference paintings recognize its value.

This quantity 28 of the complaints likewise includes an exceptional choice of papers awarded in six significant different types, supplying either a extensive viewpoint at the state of the art within the box in addition to an in-depth examine its innovative research.

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Esophagus, Thickness: 10 µm, Magnification: 400x. 2 Image obtained by Scanning Electron Microscope Figure 3. Esophagus, Thickness: 3 µm, Magnification 500x. 3 D. R. Tittmann, C. Miyasaka Images obtained using SAM In the SAM image seen below the focal position of the lens is at the surface of the specimen (z = 0 µm) (Figure 4). The frequency used for this image is 200 MHz. Figure 4. Esophagus, Thickness: 10 µm. In the SAM image below the focal position of the lens is at the subsurface of the specimen (z < 0) (Figure 5).

However the SEM does not have any ability to image the subsurface of the specimen as the SAM has been shown to be able to. The OM in this case can neither image specimens of the thickness that the SAM has the ability to image, nor can it penetrate into the subsurface as the SAM can. 4. RESULTS The pictures that were obtained using the SAM did not have as high resolution as those obtained using the LSCOM and the SEM. However the SAM was still able to obtain meaningful images of the tissues being imaged.

1)–(2) for each material. To estimate the attenuation of the leaky wave, the spectra of the recorded waveforms Sn(f) were calculated first. Then, for a particular frequency f0=4 MHz, the average value of η was estimated based on the decay of the spectral magnitudes An=|Sn(f0)| with increasing channel number n (Fig. 4(b)). Finally, the attenuation factor of the leaky wave α was found by solving Eq. (4). 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The values of the velocity CR and attenuation factor α measured for the test specimens by the proposed ultrasonic material characterization system are summarized in Table 1.

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