By Daniel Abou-Ras, Thomas Kirchartz, Uwe Rau
Written by means of scientists from major institutes in Germany, united states and Spain who use those concepts because the middle in their medical paintings and who've an exact proposal of what's correct for photovoltaic units, this article includes concise and entire lecture-like chapters on particular study methods.They specialize in rising, really good suggestions which are new to the sphere of photovoltaics but have a confirmed relevance. even though, because new equipment have to be judged based on their implications for photovoltaic units, a transparent introductory bankruptcy describes the fundamental physics of thin-film sun cells and modules, delivering a advisor to the categorical merits which are provided by means of every one person method.The selection of topics is a consultant cross-section of these tools having fun with a excessive measure of visibility in contemporary clinical literature. in addition, they care for particular device-related issues and contain a variety of fabric and surface/interface research tools that experience lately confirmed their relevance. ultimately, simulation options are offered which are used for ab-initio calculations of correct semiconductors and for gadget simulations in 1D and 2D.For scholars in physics, sturdy nation physicists, fabrics scientists, PhD scholars in fabric sciences, fabrics institutes, semiconductor physicists, and people operating within the semiconductor undefined, in addition to being compatible as supplementary studying in comparable classes.
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Extra info for Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells
Thin-ﬁlm solar cells are usually more complex devices with a higher number of layers that are optimized for one or several purposes. 10. The ﬁrst possibility is that light enters the device through a transparent superstrate. The superstrate has to maintain the mechanical stability of the device, while at the same time being extremely transparent. The superstrate is followed by layers which are part of the front contact, followed by the absorber layer and the layers that form the back contact. The second possibility is to inverse the layer stack, starting with the front contact, the absorber, and the back contact.
9 Current/voltage curves of (a) a p–i–n-junction solar cell and (b) a p–njunction solar cell for a constant mobility m ¼ 1 cm2/V s (for electrons and holes) and with a varying lifetime t ¼ 1 ns, 10 ns, 100 ns, 1 ms, and 10 ms. 1. An increasing lifetime helps to increase Voc in both cases up to the level defined by the surface recombination alone. In case of the p–i–n-junction solar cell, the FF increases as well. 1 Summary of all parameters for the simulations in this chapter that are not changed for the simulationa).
These special features of the inorganic thin-ﬁlm photovoltaic technologies deﬁne the ﬁeld for the characterization techniques discussed in this book. Electrical characterization, electroluminescence and photoluminescence, capacitance spectroscopy, and characterization of light trapping as considered in Chapters 2–5 and 7 are common photovoltaic analysis techniques. However, the speciﬁc properties of the thin-ﬁlm systems like the disordered nature of the materials, the importance of features in the nm scale, and the fact that the ﬁlm thicknesses are of the order or even in some cases much below the wavelength of visible light account for the special aspects that must be considered when using these techniques.