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By Professor Pamela Munn

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Patterns of exclusion vary in terms of type of local authority. London boroughs excluded a greater proportion of children than either counties or metropolitan areas. Inner London boroughs have double the rates for metropolitan authorities and counties (Parsons, 1996, 1999). Parsons also suggests that the permanent exclusion rate for Inner London authorities at secondary level is equivalent to one in every 130 pupils. No equivalent statistics exist for Scotland although a national pic­ ture will emerge in the near future as a result of Scottish Office guid­ ance to schools and local authorities about the kind of information about exclusion being sought (Scottish Office, 1998).

It was also clear, however, that there were some patterns to be found which were shared by groups of schools. In order to detect such patterns we focused on the schools which fell within the highest and lowest 10 per cent of the range of use of each variable. This was because the ranges were so wide. 54 per Alternatives to Exclusion from School 24 cent of roll. Such a wide range meant that it would be unwise to attempt to apply any sophisticated statistical modelling techniques with a view to establishing school effects.

1 reports the reasons given for exclusion. The reasons stated can reflect no more than the legislative grounds for exclusion and/ or the space available on the form which the head teachers were asked to complete. 1. Number of times each pupil had been excluded August 1994 - March 1995 Times excluded Primary school pupils N 184 = Once Twice 3 times 4 times 5 times Over 5 times No. of pupils % 117 34 15 14 2 2 64 18 8 8 1 1 Secondary school pupils N 2,435 = No. of pupils 1,699 455 191 68 37 30 % 69 18 8 3 1 1 *Details on some pupils were missing and so totals in the tables may vary.

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