By Tharwat F. Tadros
Surfactants are floor energetic brokers, molecules that experience an important function in emulsions, suspensions, and foams. They locate frequent program in own care, cosmetics, prescribed drugs, agrochemicals and the meals undefined. Their class, actual homes, part habit, their results and purposes are lined during this booklet.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Surfactants
4. Shapes of micelles. indicate that in many systems the micelles are not spherical. For example, Debye and Anacker  proposed a cylindrical micelle to explain the light scattering results on hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide in water. Evidence for disc-shaped micelles have also been obtained under certain conditions. A schematic representation of the spherical, lamellar and rod-shaped micelles, suggested by McBain, Hartley and Debye is given in Fig. 4. Many ionic surfactants show dramatic temperature-dependent solubility as illustrated in Fig.
Unfortunately, the errors in locating the cmc (which in many cases is not a sharp point) leads to a large error in the value of Ho . A more accurate and direct method of obtaining Ho is microcalorimetry. 2. 2. Thermodynamic quantities for micellization of octylhexaoxyethylene glycol monoether. 2 that Go is large and negative. However, Ho is positive, indicating that the process is endothermic. In addition, TSo is large and positive which implies that in the micellization process there is a net increase in entropy.
As mentioned before, carbohydrate ester surfactants suffer from the disadvantage of chemical instability at neutral or alkaline pH (due to the instability of the ester bond). This instability problem can be overcome by using alkyl glycosides which are based on similar building blocks. Chemical synthesis is useful for the production of mixtures of alkyl glycosides as discussed before. When pure isomers are needed, enzymatic synthesis offers an attractive alternative. Two main classes of enzymes can be used for coupling the carbohydrate part to a hydrophobic alcohol, namely glycosyl transferases and glycosyl hydrolases.