English As A Second Language

Download Assessing Grammar (Cambridge Language Assessment) by James E. Purpura PDF

By James E. Purpura

A renewed curiosity in grammar, from pedagogical and study views, has created the necessity for brand new methods to assessing the grammatical skill of language newbies. This e-book offers a finished framework of moment language grammatical wisdom and makes use of this as a base to aid readers create their very own overview instruments to check scholars' grammar.

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In the grammar-learning process, explicit grammatical knowledge refers to a conscious knowledge of grammatical forms and their meanings. Explicit knowledge is usually accessed slowly, even when it is almost fully automatized (Ellis, 2001b). DeKeyser (1995) characterizes grammatical instruction as ‘explicit’ when it involves the explanation of a rule or the request to focus on a grammatical feature. Instruction can be explicitly deductive, where learners are given rules and asked to apply them, or explicitly inductive, where they are given samples of language from which to generate rules and make generalizations.

Despite these shortcomings, however, research on the interface between SLA and language testing should continue. Fairly stable routes of development have been identified for negation, questions, relative clauses and word order, and when instruction on non-contiguous stages was implemented, it proved ineffective (Lightbown, 1998). Therefore, the investigation of one or more language structures approached from both accuracy-based and developmental-based perspectives, similar to what Chang (2002, 2004) has done with respect to the relative-clause test, would greatly increase our understanding of this important interface.

Swan, 1995; Azar, 1998) provide teachers and testers alike with pedagogically oriented grammars that are an invaluable resource for organizing grammar content for instruction and assessment. Besides formal pedagogical grammars (and, of course, SLA theory), language teachers would be advised to consult language textbooks when put to the task of specifying grammatical content for instruction or assessment. These books not only provide descriptions, albeit less comprehensive, of the target grammar, but they also inform teachers of the scope with which a grammar point might be treated at a particular proficiency level or the sequence with which grammar points might be introduced.

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