English As A Second Language

Download Assessing Listening (Cambridge Language Assessment) by Gary Buck PDF

By Gary Buck

The publication outlines the key parts of listening examine in an obtainable demeanour and offers language lecturers with directions to layout and boost appropriate listening checks for his or her scholars.

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Sample text

Fred opened the door, but Macarena wouldn't come inside.  Macarena could feel the ocean breeze against her face, so she preferred to stay outside.  Fritz asked Macarena to go to Catalina, and Fred asked her to go to San Francisco.  As noted, the first case is a run­on sentence; the second case is a comma splice; and the third case is a fused sentence. The governor asked the legislature to reconsider the bill that had failed during the previous session, and convened a special task force to evaluate its ramifications if passed.

Thus, verbs and nouns compose two types of phrasal modifiers.  Note that verb phrases can be either progressive participles (­ing) or past participles (­ed).  (Initial position) • Fritz, confused and somewhat nauseated by the various aromas coming from her skin and clothes, suggested to Macarena that she shower before dinner. (Medial position) The phrasal modifiers in the first sentence are all verb phrases; in the second they are all nominative absolutes; in the third sentence, there is a noun phrase and a verb phrase; in the fourth sentence the modifier is a nominative absolute (introduced by a preposition); the last sentence has one verb­phrase modifier.

Fred was washing his car.  Fritz is reading a book.  Macarena has visited Buggsy before.  Fred and Fritz had eaten too many tacos. The perfect, as these sentences indicate, consists of a tensed form of the verb have and a verb that has ­ed or ­en attached (the ­ed and ­en suffixes are called past participle markers).  This distinction is straightforward and does not cause confusion, but many verbs can function both transitively and intransitively, and this fact can be confusing: 6 In chapter 5, we examine Black English and see that Standard English and Black English have different ways of dealing with tense and aspect.

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