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40 ~m for type II fibers and 33 ~m for type I fibers. Similarly, normal type I fibers were slightly smaller than normal type II fibers in the levator labii, zygomaticus major, and orbicularis oris muscles (Fig. I). The same human facial muscles showed a higher number of type II fibers [8]. Both in our findings [8] and in the studies by Krarup [6], type lIB fibers were found most frequently in the normal human platysma. The distribution in the platysma of fibers types most closely resembled that in normal human limb muscles.

V branches have been shown to converge on STN neurons from where mostly ipsilateral projectiOlis reach the FN, which also receives collateral input from STN efferents to abducens and trigeminal motor nuclei [4,5,24,26]. In addition, a secopd, interneuron-mediated pathway has been shown electrophysiologically [27]. In man, Stennert and Limberg [23J, based on electrophysiological studies, postolated the involvement of an interneuron in facial proprioceptive movement control. Morphologically, STN connections with the bulbar reticular formation (RF) [24] and RF interneurons projecting to the FN [II, 25] have been shown.

RF, reticular formation; HN, hypoglossal nucleus . • Also via the nucleus reticularis parvocellularis of the medulla and the spinal trigerninal nucleus. b Via the interstitial nucleus of Cajal. 'Via the interstitial nucleus ofCajal, the nucleus ofDarkshevitsch, and the red nucleus. , Via tegmental pathways. • Via rubrospinal pathway. f Via tectobulbar tracts, paralemniscal region, pontine RF, and via tectospinal pathway. stretch-sensitive units may also have MSp in perioral muscles. Since there is no evidence for proprioceptive afferents in the human facial nerve, most likely the trigeminal nerve (n.

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