By J. Seddon
This quantity is a wonderful creation to the aerodynamics of helicopters. uncomplicated Helicopter Aerodynamics presents an account of the 1st rules within the fluid mechanics and flight dynamics of single-rotor helicopters. The textual content is meant to supply, in a quick quantity, an creation to the idea of rotary-wing plane to be used by means of undergraduate and graduate scholars, whereas supplying an in depth description of the actual phenomena concerned. The textual content assumes that the reader already has a few wisdom of adjustments among the mounted- and rotary-wing plane. Many diagrams, drawings, graphs, and consultant units of information increase the textual content.
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Additional info for Basic Helicopter Aerodynamics: An Account of First Principles in the Fluid Mechanics and Flight Dynamics of the Single Rotor Helicopter
1 Phantom. Wing tip vortices generated by a McDonnell Douglas F4 ‘Can we wonder that the conventional rotor has been a success? At this stage one might think the real question is why the fixed-wing aircraft has not died out’ But back to Lilienthal and there’s the rub. Making the helicopter fly has involved wrestling with a long catalogue of problems, of which some have been solved and others continue to be lived with. Thus it was necessary to invent the use of a tail rotor to stop the helicopter spinning round on the main rotor axis.
3 Where w = T/A is termed the ‘disc loading’. vi is the ‘induced velocity’ or alternatively the ‘downwash’, using an analogy with aircraft 16 Basic Helicopter Aerodynamics wing flow which becomes more obvious when the helicopter is in forward flight (Chapter 5). In practice the level of disc loading for a piston-engined helicopter will normally be around 10 kG/m2. Piston engines are heavy and a large rotor diameter must be used to minimize the engine size needed for vertical lift; hence the disc loading is relatively low.
5 Vortex generation in slow vertical descent. 6 Vortex-ring state in vertical descent. induced velocity vi remains positive as the rotor continues to maintain lift. Initially small recirculating regions develop around the blade tips, as shown in Fig. 5. Becoming evident when Vc reaches a level about half vi, an interaction takes place between the upward flow around the disc and the downward flow through it, resulting in the formation of a vortex ring encircling the rim of the disc, doughnut fashion.