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By Ali Cinar; et al

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Infections by phage are particularly difficult to combat because the virus particles are small enough to escape capture by the filters used to sterilize the air provided to the bioreactors. Phage attacks can be overcome by switching to resistant strains of the microorganisms. In a batch bioprocess, the only material added and removed during the course of operation is air/gas exchange, antifoam and pH controlling agents. For years, batch fermenters were loaded, inoculated, and run to completion with nothing added except air and some agent to control foam.

Detailed discussion of first principles models of bioprocesses and case studies are presented in Chapter 2. 1. Steps in model formulation of bioprocesses. 2. Focus Areas of the Book 9 Data-based Models of Bioprocesses Process models developed by using fundamental principles explain and describe the behavior of the process. This provides the opportunity to assess the importance of various fundamental phenomena such as steps in the metabolic pathway, effects of various modes of mass transfer, or limitations in energy exchange.

Irrespective of the mode of operation with respect to culture, the bioreactors are always operated in continuous mode with respect to gas phase (gas phase continuously entering and leaving the reactor). 3. 1 25 Batch Operation A batch culture operation is characterized by no addition to and withdrawal from the culture of biomass, fresh nutrient medium and culture broth (with the exception of gas phase). The batch operation is initiated by addition of a small amount (with respect to sterile nutrient medium) of a cell culture (the so-called "inoculum") to a sterile nutrient medium.

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