Biotechnology

Download Biotechnology : An Illustrated Primer by Rolf D. Schmid, Claudia Schmidt-Dannert, Ruth Hammelehle PDF

By Rolf D. Schmid, Claudia Schmidt-Dannert, Ruth Hammelehle

Now awarded in huge structure, the hot Schmid is the perfect primer in biotechnology. The two-page structure with one web page being a whole colour determine and the other web page being explanatory textual content is the right mixture among speedy visual-based studying with intensive info

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Though the number of known metabolites exceeds 50,000, there are only a few thousand essential metabolites that are formed and transformed through central metabolic pathways which are quite similar throughout living organisms. , the biodegradation of glucose to activated acetic acid (acetyl-CoA)(glycolysis), the formation of C-6 compounds from acetyl-CoA and oxalace- tate (tricarboxylic acid cycle) or the transformation of fatty acids to glucose (gluconeogenesis). This observation and the universality of the genetic code have led to the modern discipline of a “synthetic biology:” (→320) it is now possible to create artificial metabolic pathways, to express and optimize them via “metabolic engineering” in suitable host organisms (plants, microorganisms), and to apply this technology to the synthesis of value-added chemicals.

Within the cell nucleus, the DNA is transcribed into mRNA (primary transcript), followed by removal of the intron part of the transcript by splicing. The spliced, mature mRNA now leaves the nucleus and attaches to the ribosomes, which are located in the cytoplasm and on the endoplasmic reticulum. At the ribosomes, the protein chains are assembled according to the sequence information encoded in the mRNA. In some cases, the mRNA also encodes leader sequences, which direct a protein into a special compartment of the cell.

1m.  1013 standard diploid cells of our body contain a double set of 46 chromosomes, equivalent to ca. 2m of DNA per cell. During each cell division, all 46 double strands are replicated and packaged again into 46 chromosomes in the daughter cells. The DNA of prokaryotes exhibits simpler packaging. Because prokaryotes do not contain a cell nucleus, their DNA molecule is contained in a subcellular region of the cytoplasm, the nucleoid. 5 mm.  coli under favorable growth conditions does not take more than 20 min, the doubling time of this organism.

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