Biotechnology

Download Biotechnology demystified by Sharon Walker PDF

By Sharon Walker

This self-teaching consultant explains the fundamental recommendations and basics in the entire significant subtopics of biotechnology. The content material advances logically from the fundamentals of molecular and mobile biology to extra complicated subject matters similar to DNA, reproductive cloning, experimental strategies, infectious illnesses, immunology, the Human Genome undertaking, new drug discoveries, and genetic issues

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Now let’s return to the business of dividing the cell. The first phase of mitosis is completed when the chromosomes are duplicated. In the second phase of mitosis, prometaphase, the nuclear membrane dissolves and the chromosomes begin to move to the center of the cell. This process ensures that when the cell divides, one of each set of chromosomes must go with each new cell. The sister chromatids are attached at points called kinetochores through a central dense area called a centromere. This is what looked like a button to you when you first saw this event.

Sexual Reproduction—Meiosis Mitosis is the process whereby a somatic cell duplicates itself. Meiosis, shown in Figures 2-10 and 2-11, is the process to prepare germ cells or gametes. A germ cell contains only one chromosome from each parent and is designed to fuse with a germ cell from another individual to produce a genetically unique offspring. 117] at [07/18/16]. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Not to be redistributed or modified in any way without permission. 32 33 INTERPHASE Centriole Pairs Chromatin PROPHASE I Spindle Tetrad Nuclear Envelope METAPHASE I Metaphase Plate Sites of crossing over Sister Chromatids ANAPHASE I Centromere Spindle fibers attached to kinetochore Sister chromatids remain attached Figure 2-10 Meiosis I whereas normal cells are diploid (two copies).

These duplications are truly identical and duplicates are called sister chromatids. Temporarily, the cell has 92 chromosomes. For the cell to begin the process of duplicating the chromosomes, unzipping the chromosome is a bit of a challenge. Most of us think of chromosomes as long, winding staircases, because that is how we have always seen it depicted. Actually, even in a resting cell, the DNA material is wound very, very tightly, staircase on top of staircase. 117] at [07/18/16]. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC.

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