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By G. Antranikian, G. Antranikian, M. Ciaramella, M.S. da Costa, E.A. Galinski, R. Ladenstein, S. Maloney, V.T. Marteinsson, M. Moracci, R. Müller, J. van der Oost, F.M. Pisani, D. Prieur, N.J. Russell, M. Rossi, H. Santos, R. Sharp, W.M. de Vos

During this unique factor overview articles summarize the main remarkable positive factors of microorganisms that may live to tell the tale less than severe stipulations. those microorganisms are tailored to residing at a hundred° C in volcanic springs, at low temperatures within the chilly polar seas, at excessive strain within the deep sea, at very high and low pH values (pH 0-1 or pH 10-11), or at very excessive salt concentrations (35%). the newest findings at the molecular biology and the protein constitution of those unique organisms are offered. additionally, the aptitude functions of extremophiles are reviewed, together with the creation of enzymes, suitable solutes and using those extremophiles within the degradation of xenobiotics.

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Finally, in order to understand the mechanisms of bacterial adaptation to high pressures, some terrestrial organisms have also been exposed to these unusual conditions (for them) and their physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology studied. Several detailed reviews have been published on microbial life at high pressures [6, 8, 9], and the mechanism of bacterial adaptation has been well adressed recently [10]. This paper will focus on prokaryotes usually living permanently or temporarily in high pressure environments.

For the strains CS 1 and FS [79], a slight pressure of 3 atm increased the growth rate, probably because of the increased availability of the CO2/H2 mixture due to increased dissolution. But application of a 200 atm pressure clearly decreased the growth rate of these methanogens. Effect of pressure on the deep-sea methanogen Methanococcus jannaschii was studied using an hyperbaric bioreactor [82]. With helium as the pressurizing gas, it was shown that pressure up to 750 atm accelerated growth and methanogenesis at 86 and 90 ~ However, above 90 ~ methanogenesis and growth were uncoupled, and pressure increased only the upper temperature limit for methanogenesis.

Information about OmpH function and regulation was obtained by cloning the ompH gene and constructing several ompH mutants [51, 52]. Increasing pressures up to sSg's optimum pressure increased rates of transcription of ompH and subsequently its transcript levels. It was found that OmpH probably"functioned as a relatively non-specific porine protein, that facilitated uptake of substrates larger than 400 dakons". Other environmental factors such as cell density or carbon starvation [53] were found to influence expression of ornpH gene, the same promoter being"activated by high cell density at i atm as well as during low-cell density growth at 272 atm".

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