By Kyoichi Kumada (Eds.)
Regardless of the massive variety of papers and books released on soil natural topic (humus), our wisdom of the topic continues to be very constrained, as is our wisdom of humic acid. the writer of this ebook started to examine humus on the finish of the Forties and persisted until eventually 1984 while he retired from Nagoya collage. With the purpose of creating a scientific figuring out of soil natural topic, he has compiled proof and a dialogue of humus in keeping with his wide experimental effects prior to now forty years.In this e-book, humic acids are categorised right into a, B, Rp and P kinds, in accordance with their optical homes. The trouble-free composition and different chemical houses of humic acid varieties are proven to be frequently diverse from one another. a brand new process for humus composition research utilized to varied different types of soils in Japan and a number of other international locations exhibits that the variety of humus compositions of soils is systematically comprehensible. those findings lead the writer to novel theories at the chemical configuration and formation of humic acids and humic components. Diagenesis of humus below terrestrial stipulations is illustrated as to the buried humic horizons of Black soil (Andosol).The publication could be worthy not just to soil scientists and agronomists but additionally to geochemists, oceanographers, limnologists, water scientists, biologists and chemists who're facing natural topic in terrestrial, aquatic, and sedimentary environments.
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Extra info for Chemistry of Soil Organic Matter
Solutions or coagulation of HAS was observed and recorded : K, transparent; N, turbid; and F, coagulated. The results illustrated in Table 2-1 show that the higher the degree of humification of the HA, the greater the sensitivity to the electrolyte; the HA was coagulated by the smaller amount of the electrolyte. This finding suggests that HA becomes more hydrophobic with the progress of humification. As shown in Fig. 2-6, X-ray diffractograms of HAS were divided into two groups. In the first group, to which belonged HAS having lower degrees of humification, there existed a broad halo (so-called y-band), suggesting their amorphous nature.
0. The acid-precipitable FA, and non-precipitable FA, fractions are dealt with separately. Comments Preparation of soil sample Usually air-dried soils are used for extraction of humus. Denaturation of organic matter by air-drying of wet soils may be mostly negligible, but this is not necessarily true in the case of peat soils. Air-dried and sieved soils contain more or less fine roots and other crude organic debris. The < 2 mm soils may contain larger amounts of crude organic debris than the ~ 0 .
Certainly treatment with alkali causes some degradation of humus, but the degree may depend on the conditions of treatment quantitatively and qualitatively. For instance, Swift and Posner (1972) treated HA for 30 days with normal NaQH under 0,. This treatment condition seems to be rather drastic compared to that usually used for the extraction and purification of HA. The effect of the exclusion of oxygen by bubbling nitrogen gas has not been tested. However, the author's procedures called for a mixture of soil and extractant to fill a narrow-necked bottle to the neck, and this was stoppered tightly during the extraction period.