Download Churchill and Seapower by Christopher M. Bell PDF

By Christopher M. Bell

Winston Churchill had an extended and nearer dating with the Royal military than any British statesman nowa days, yet his list as a naval strategist and custodian of the nation's sea strength has been mired in controversy because the ill-fated Dardanelles crusade in 1915. this present day, Churchill remains to be looked through many as a clumsy strategist who interfered in naval operations and infrequently overrode his expert advisers--with unavoidably disastrous effects.

Churchill and Seapower is the 1st significant examine of Winston Churchill's checklist as a naval strategist and his impression because the such a lot well-liked mother or father of Britain's sea energy within the glossy period. in response to wide archival learn, the publication debunks many well known and well-entrenched myths surrounding arguable episodes in either international Wars, together with the Dardanelles catastrophe, the failed Norwegian crusade, the conflict of the Atlantic, and the devastating lack of the Prince of Wales and Repulse in 1941. It indicates that many universal criticisms of Churchill were exaggerated, but in addition that a few of his error were mostly overlooked--such as his willingness to extend the conflict of the Atlantic with a view to focus assets at the bombing crusade opposed to Nazi Germany.

The booklet additionally examines Churchill's evolution as a maritime strategist over the process his occupation, and files his serious half in coping with Britain's naval decline through the first half the 20th century. Churchill's real affection for the Royal army has frequently distracted recognition from the truth that his perspectives on sea strength have been pragmatic and unsentimental. certainly, as Christopher M. Bell exhibits, in a interval ruled by means of declining assets, international threats, and speedy technological switch, it was once more and more air instead of sea strength that Churchill appeared to because the origin of Britain's safeguard.

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The sea is all one, and war is all one. 29 The ‘first of all the laws of war,’ he later explained to the Secretary of State for War, is ‘overpowering strength at the decisive point’. As desirable as it ap p re nt i c e shi p, 19 0 0 – 14 19 was to maintain strong forces everywhere, Churchill rightly judged that his Liberal colleagues would build no more capital ships than were needed to maintain the 60 per cent margin over Germany. The nation simply could not afford to maintain a crushing numerical superiority over Germany in the North Sea while also matching the fleets of Germany’s allies, AustriaHungary and Italy, in the Mediterranean, and keeping powerful squadrons in more distant waters to deal with enemy raiders.

Such a ‘force is not directly comparable to the Italian or Austrian fleets’, he conceded: but we consider that its speed and quality would enable it, if well handled, to seize any opportunity of striking a heavy blow which a temporary weakness of the enemy might offer, and to avoid being brought to action in unfavourable circumstances. 63 To strengthen his position in Cabinet, Churchill enlisted Borden’s support. On 19 December he warned the Canadian prime minister that the Admiralty was being pressed to reduce its battleship programme for the coming year.

He still disliked the idea of tying up modern capital ships in a secondary theatre, and he assumed that the naval agreement with France made it strategically unnecessary for Britain to match Austrian strength. It was ‘extremely improbable’, he argued in September 1913, that Britain would have to face Germany and one or both of its allies without French support. And since France alone could be expected to match both Austria-Hungary and Italy, Britain could afford to remove some, if not all, of its capital ships from the Mediterranean in wartime.

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